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How To Do Object Oriented Programming The Right Way

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A Third way: No OOP

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The three cornerstones of OOP — Inheritance, Encapsulation, and Polymorphism — are powerful programming tools/concepts but have their shortcomings:


Inheritance promotes code reuse but you are often forced to take more than what you want.

Joe Armstrong (creator of Erlang) puts it best:

The problem with object-oriented languages is they’ve got all this implicit environment that they carry around with them. You wanted a banana but what you got was a gorilla holding the banana and the entire jungle.

So what if there’s more than what we ask for? Can’t we just ignore the stuff we don’t need? Only if it’s that simple. When we need classes that depend on other classes, which depend on other classes, we’re going to have to deal with dependency hell, which really slows down the build and debugging processes. Additionally, applications that carry a long chain of dependencies are not very portable.

There’s of course the fragile base class problem as mentioned above. It’s unrealistic to expect everything to fall neatly into place when we create mappings between real-world objects and their classes. Inheritance is not forgiving when you need to refactor your code, especially the base class. Also, inheritance weakens encapsulation, the next cornerstone of OOP:

The problem is that if you inherit an implementation from a superclass and then change that implementation, the change from the superclass ripples through the class hierarchy. This rippling effect potentially affects all the subclasses.


Encapsulation keeps every object’s internal state variables safe from the outside. The ideal case is that your program would consist of “islands of objects” each with their own states passing messages back and forth. This sounds like a good idea in theory if you are building a perfectly distributed system but in practice, designing a program consisting of perfectly self-contained objects is hard and limiting.

Lots of real world applications require solving difficult problems with many moving parts. When you take an OOP approach to design your application, you’re going to run into conundrums like how do you divide up the functionalities of your overall applications between different objects and how to manage interactions and data sharing between different objects. This article has some interesting points about the design challenges OOP applications:

When we consider the needed functionality of our code, many behaviors are inherently cross-cutting concerns and so don’t really belong to any particular data type. Yet these behaviors have to live somewhere, so we end up concocting nonsense Doer classes to contain them…And these nonsense entities have a habit of begetting more nonsense entities: when I have umpteen Manager objects, I then need a ManagerManager.

It’s true. I’ve seen “ManagerManager classes” in production software that wasn’t originally designed to be this way has grown in complexity over the years.

As we will see next when I introduce function composition (the alternative to OOP), we have something much simpler than objects that encapsulates its private variables and performs a specific task — it’s called functions!

But before we go there, we need to talk about the last cornerstone of OOP:


Polymorphism let’s us specify behavior regardless of data type. In OOP, this means designing a class or prototype that can be adapted by objects that need to work with different kinds of data. The objects that use the polymorphic class/prototype needs to define type-specific behavior to make it work. Let’s see an example.

Suppose to want to create a general (polymorphic) object that takes some data and a status flag as parameters. If the status says the data is valid (i.e., status === true), a function can be applied onto the data and the result, along with the status flag, will be returned. If the status flags the data as invalid, then the function will not be applied onto the data and the data, along with the invalid status flag, will be returned.

Let’s start with creating a polymorphic prototype object called Maybe:

function Maybe({data, status}) {
this.data = data
this.status = status

Maybe is a wrapper for data. To wrap the data in Maybe, we provide an additional field called status that indicates if the data is valid or not.

We can make Maybe a prototype with a function called apply, which takes a function and applies it on the data only if the status of the data indicates that it is valid.

Maybe.prototype.apply = function (f) {
if(this.status) {
return new Maybe({data: f(this.data), status: this.status})
return new Maybe({data: this.data, status: this.status})

We can add another function to the Maybe prototype which gets the data or returns a message if there’s an error with the data.

Maybe.prototype.getOrElse = function (msg) {
if(this.status) return this.data
return msg

Now we create two objects from the Maybe prototype called Number:

function Number(data) {
let status = (typeof data === 'number')
Maybe.call(this, {data, status})
Number.prototype = Object.create(Maybe.prototype)

and String:

function String(data) {
let status = (typeof data === ‘string’)
Maybe.call(this, {data, status})
String.prototype = Object.create(Maybe.prototype)

Let’s see our objects in action. We create a function called increment that’s only defined for numbers and another function called split that’s only defined for strings:

const increment = num => num + 1
const split = str => str.split('')

Because JavaScript is not type safe, it won’t prevent you from incrementing a string or splitting a number. You will see a runtime error when you uses an undefined method on a data type. For example, suppose we try the following:

let foop = 12

That’s going to give you a type error when you run the code.

However, if we used our Number and String objects to wrap the numbers and strings before operating on them, we can prevent these run time errors:

let numValid = new Number(12)
let numInvalid = new Number(“foo”)
let strValid = new String(“hello world”)
let strInvalid = new String(-1)
let a = numValid.apply(increment).getOrElse('TypeError!')
let b = numInvalid.apply(increment).getOrElse('TypeError Oh no!')
let c = strValid.apply(split).getOrElse('TypeError!')
let d = strInvalid.apply(split).getOrElse('TypeError :(')

What will the following print out?

console.log({a, b, c, d})

Since we designed our Maybe prototype to only apply the function onto the data if the data is the right type, this will be logged to console:

a: 13,
b: ‘TypeError Oh no!’,
c: [ 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', ' ', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd' ],
d: ‘TypeError :(‘

What we just did is a type of a monad (albeit I didn’t implement Maybe to follow all the monad laws). The Maybe monad is a wrapper that’s used when a value can be absent or some validation can fail and you don’t care about the exact cause. Typically this can occur during data retrieval and validation. Maybe handles failure in validation or failure in applying a function similar to the try-catch you’ve likely seen before. In Maybe, we are handling the failure in type validation by printing to a string, but we can easily revise the getOrElse function to call another function which handles the validation error.

Some programming languages like Haskell come with a built-in monad type() but in JavaScript, you have to roll your own. ES6 introduced Promise, which is a monad for dealing with latency. Sometimes you need data that could take a while to retrieve. Promise lets you write code that appears synchronous while delaying operation on the data until the data becomes available. Using Promise is a cleaner way of asynchronous programming than using callback functions, which could lead to a phenomenon called the callback hell.


As alluded to earlier, there’s something much simpler than class/prototypes which can be easily reused, encapsulates internal states, performs a given operation on any type of data, and be polymorphic — it’s called functional composition.

JavaScript easily lets us bundle related functions and data together in an object:

const Person = {
firstName: 'firstName',
lastName: 'lastName',
getFullName: function() {
return `${this.firstName} ${this.lastName}`

Then we can use the Person object directly like this:

let person = Object.create(Person)
person.getFullName() //> “firstName lastName”
// Assign internal state variables
person.firstName = 'Dan'
person.lastName = 'Abramov'
// Access internal state variables
person.getFullName() //> “Dan Abramov”

Let’s make a User object by cloning the Person object, then augmenting it with additional data and functions:

const User = Object.create(Person)
User.email = ''
User.password = ''
User.getEmail = function() {
return this.email

Then we can create an instance of user using Object.create

let user = Object.create(User)
user.firstName = 'Dan'
user.lastName = 'Abramov'
user.email = '[email protected]'
user.password = 'iLuvES6'

A gotcha here is use Object.create whenever you want to copy. Objects in JavaScript are mutable so when you straight out assigning to create a new object and you mutate the second object, it will change the original object!

Except for numbers, strings, and boolean, everything in JavaScript is an object.

// Wrong
const arr = [1,2,3]
const arr2 = arr
arr //> [1,2]

In the above example, I used const to show that it doesn’t protect you from mutating objects. Objects are defined by their reference so while const prevents you from reassigning arr, it doesn’t make the object “constant”.

Object.create makes sure we are copying an object instead of passing its reference around.

Like Lego pieces, we can create copies of the same objects and tweak them, compose them, and pass them onto other objects to augment the capability of other objects.

For example, we define a Customer object with data and functions. When our User converts, we want to add the Customer stuff to our user instance.

const Customer = {
plan: 'trial'
Customer.setPremium = function() {
this.plan = 'premium'

Now we can augment user object with an Customer methods and fields.

user.customer = Customer

After running the above two lines of codes, this becomes our user object:

firstName: 'Dan',
lastName: 'Abramov',
email: '[email protected]',
password: 'iLuvES6',
customer: { plan: 'premium', setPremium: [Function] }

When we want to supply a object with some additional capability, higher order objects cover every use case.

As shown in the example above, we should favor composition over class inheritance because composition is simpler, more expressive, and more flexible:

Classical inheritance creates is-a relationships with restrictive taxonomies, all of which are eventually wrong for new use-cases. But it turns out, we usually employ inheritance for has-a, uses-a, or can-do relationships.

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